تاثیر روش‌های تغلیظ (اتمسفریک و مایکروویو) بر خواص کیفی آب ریشه گیاه شلغم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شهرکرد

2 گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، واحد شهر کرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شهرکرد، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شهرکرد

10.22034/fr.2021.32037.1653

چکیده

با توجه به ارزش تغذیه‌ای بالای آب شلغم، روشی که بتواند محصولی از آن تولید نماید که مواد مغذی آن حفظ شده و در طی سال و در همه‌جا در دسترس باشد بسیار مفید است. در این تحقیق به مقایسه ویژگی‌های کیفی آب تغلیظ شده ریشه گیاه شلغم به دو روش مایکروویو (180 و 540 وات) و تغلیظ معمول در فشار اتمسفریک در زمان های مختلف پرداخته شده و خواص کیفی محصول شامل میزان اسکوربیک اسید، درصد مهارکنندگی رادیکال آزاد DPPH، شاخص‌های رنگ، بریکس و خواص رئولوژیکی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش زمان تغلیظ میزان بریکس افزایش می‌یابد. همچنین با افزایش میزان بریکس، از میزان شاخص های L* و b* کاسته و به شاخص a* افزوده میشود. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش زمان تغلیظ درصد مهارکنندگی افزایش و درصد ویتامین ث باقیمانده در تمامی روشها کاهش پیدا میکند. نتایج خواص رئولوژیکی نشان داد تمامی روش‌ها و زمان‌های تغلیظ از قانون هرشل بالکی تبعیت می‌کنند. به طور کلی در ارتباط با تغییرات کلی رنگ نمونه‌ها در طی تغلیظ و همچنین در زمینه خواص تغذیه‌ای عصاره شلغم تغلیظ شده، روش مایکروویو به خصوص در توان پایین تر، موثرتر از روش اتمسفریک عمل کرده و می‌توان گفت استفاده از روش مایکروویو یک روش بالقوه برای تغلیظ آب شلغم می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of condensation (atmospheric and microwave) methods on the quality properties of roots water of turnip plants

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farideh Ghaderi 1
  • Nafiseh jahanbakhshian 2
  • Maryam Jafari 3
1 Graduated student, Department of Food Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Iran, Shahrekord / Food Science and Technology College
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran / Food Science and Technology College
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran / Food Science and Technology College
چکیده [English]

Given the high nutritional value of turnip, a method that can produce a product that maintains its nutrients and is available throughout the year and everywhere is very useful. In this research, the qualitative properties of condensed water of turnip roots were investigated by microwave (180 and 540 W) and conventional concentrations at atmospheric pressure at different times. The qualitative properties of the product were ascorbic acid, the percentage of free radical inhibitory DPPH, Color indexes, brix and rheological properties were investigated. The results showed that with increasing concentration time, the amount of brix increased. Also, by increasing the amount of brix, the amount of L * and b * indices is reduced and added to the index a *. The results showed that increasing concentration time increased the inhibitory percent and the percentage of remaining vitamin C in all methods decreased. The results of rheological properties showed that all methods and condensation times follow the Herschel-Balkh's law. In general, in conjunction with the general changes in the color of the samples during condensation, as well as in the nutritional properties of the condensed turnip extract, the microwave technique, especially in lower power, is more effective than the atomic method, and it can be said that the use of The microwave method is a potential way to congeal turnips.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Brix
  • Condensation
  • Turnip
  • Atmospheric pressure
  • microwave

عالمی ا، امام جمعه ز، میرزایی ح، ۱۳۹۱. اثر فشار و دمای تغلیظ بر برخی خصوصیات کیفی آب هندوانه، فصلنامه علوم و صنایع غذایی، تهران: انتشارات نوران.

فاطمی ح، ۱۳۸8، اصول تکنولوژی نگهداری مواد غذایی، تهران: انتشارات شرکت سهامی، 223-244.

طهماسبی پور م، دهقان نیا ج، قنبرزاده ب، سید­لو س، 1391، مدل سازی تغییرات رنگی طی خشک کردن انگور پیش تیمار شده با فراصوت و کربوکسی متیل سلولز و بررسی ویژگی­های حسی آن، فصلنامه علوم و فناوری­های نوین غذایی، تهران: انتشارات نور، ٧٩-٦١.

Afoakwa E. O, Paterson A, Fowler M, & Vieira J, 2008. Particle size distribution and compositional effects on textural properties and appearance of dark chocolates. Journal of  Food Engineering 87(1): 181-190.

Ashoush I, Gadallah M G, 2011. Effects of Different Heating Methods on the Quality Characteristics of Pomegranate Juice Concentrates. Egyptian Journal of food Science 40(1): 1-14.

Askari G R, Emam-Djomeh Z, Mousavi S M, 2008. An investigation of the effects of drying methods and conditions on drying characteristics and quality attributes of agricultural products during. Food & function 22(1): 45-55.

Cabral R A F, Orrego-Alzate C E, Gabas A L, Telis-Romero J, 2007. Rheological and thermophysical properties of blackberry juice. Tecnology Alimentary Campinas 6(1): 589-596.

Cano-Lamadrid M, Lech K, Michalska A, Wasilewsk M, Figiel A, Wojdyło A, Carbonell-Barrachinaa Á A, 2017. Influence of osmotic dehydration pre-treatment and combined drying method on physico-chemical and sensory properties of pomegranate arils, cultivar Mollar de Elche. Food Chemistry 232(1): 306-315.

Chang C H, Lin H Y, Chang C Y, Liu Y C, 2006. Comparisons on the antioxidant properties of fresh, freeze dried and hot air dried tomatoes. Journal of Food Engineering 77(1): 478-485.

Cortes A, Mara J C, Esteve F, Ana J, Frigola U, Francisco P, 2005. Changes in Carotenoids Including Geometrical Isomers and Ascorbic Acid Content in Orange-Carrot Juice during Frozen Storage. European Food Research and Technology 22(1): 125-131.

Dak M, Verma R C, Jaaffrey S NA, 2007. Effect of temperature and concentration on rheological properties of ‘Kesar’ mango juice. Journal of  Food Engineering 80(1): 1011-1015.

Dewanto V, Adom W, Liu R H, 2002. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry 25(50): 3010-3014.

Fazaeli M, Yousefi S H, Emam-Djomeh Z, 2013. Investigation on the effects of microwave and conventional heating methods on the phytochemicals of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) and black mulberry juices. Journal of Food Reserch 50(1): 568-573.

Garcia-Viguera C, Zafrilla P, Romero F, Abellan P, Artes F, Barberan F A T, 1999. Color stability of strawberry jam as affected by cultivar and storage temperature. Journal of  Food Science 64(1): 243-247.

Haard N F, Chism G W, 1996. Characteristics of edible plant tissues in Fennema OW, editor. Food chemistry. 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 11(1): 944-1011.

Hartley R D, Morrisson WH, Hilmmelsbach D S, Borneman W S, 1990. Cross-linking of cell wall phenolic arabinoxylans in graminac- eous plants. Phytochemistry 29(1): 3705-3709.

Hojjatpanah G, Fazaeli M, Emam-Djomeh Z, 2011. Effects of heating method and conditions on the quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate. Journal of Food Science & Technology 46(1): 956-962.

Ibarz R, Falguera V, Garvin A, Garza S, Pagan J, Ibarz A, 2009. Flow behaviour of clarified orange juice at low temperatures. Journal of Texture Studies 40(1) 456-445.

Jaspreet V, Sivakami S, Shahani S, Suthar A C, Banavalikar M M, 2003. Antihyperglycemic Effects of Three Extracts from Momordica Charantia. Journal of  Ethnopharmacology 88(1): 107-111.

Jesus D F M, Leite L F, Silva R D, Modesta V M, Matta L M C, 2007. Orange (Citrus Sinensis) Juice Concentration by Reverse Osmosis. Journal of  Food Engineering 81(2): 287-291.

Juszczak L, Fortuna T, 2004. Effect of temperature and soluble solid content on the viscosity of cherry juice concentrate. International Agrophysics 18(1): 17-21.

Kaya A, Sozer N, 2005. Rheological behavior of sour pomegranate juice concentrates (Punica granatum L.). International Journal of  Food Science and Technology 40(1): 223-227 .

Kim K H, Tsao R R, Yang Cui S W, 2006. Phenolic acid profiles and antioxidant activities of wheat bran extracts and the effect of hydrolysis conditions. Food Chemistry 95(1): 466-473.

Maskan A, Medeni D, 2006. Production of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Juice Concentrate by Various Heating Methods: Colour Degradation and Kinetics. Journal of  Food Engineering, 72(1): 218-220.

Medeni M, 2006. Production of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Juice Concentrate by Various Heating Methods: Colour Degradation and Kinetics. Journal of  Food Engineering 72(3): 218-220.

Mohamadi Sani A, Hedayati G, Arianfar A, 2013. Effect of temperature and concentration on density and rheological properties of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Inodorus) juice. Nutrition & Food Science: 168-178.

Nawaz H, Aslam S M, Rehman A A u, Tul M. S, Saima M, 2018. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Oven Heated and Microwave Treated Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Free Radicals & Antioxidants 8(1): 89-95.

Nicoli MC, Anese M, Parpinael MT, Franceschi S, Lerici CR, 1997. Study on loss and formation of antioxidants during processing and storage. Cancer Lett .114: 71–4.

Re R, Bramley P M, Rice-Evans C, 2002. Effects of food processing on flavonoids and lycopene status in a Mediterranean tomato variety. Free Rad Res 36(1): 80-10.

Rhim J W, Nunes R V, Jones V A, Swartzel K R, 1989. Kinetics of color change of grape juice generated using linearly increasing temperature. Journal of Food Sci 54(1): 776-777.

Samani B H, Khoshtaghaza M. H, Zareifourosh M. H, Eshtiagh M. N, Rostami I, 2016. Design, development and evaluation of an automatic fruit-juice pasteurization system using microwave - ultrasonic waves. Journal of  Food Science and Technology 53(1): 88-103.

Sanchez J Y, Ruiz M, Raventos J. M, Auleda E, Hernandez, 2010. “Progressive Freeze Concentration of Orange Juice in a Pilot Plant Falling Film.” Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 11 (4): 644–51.

Sani M, Hedayati G, Arianfar A, 2013. Effect of temperature and concentration on density and rheological properties of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Inodorus) juice. Nutrition & Food Science, 11(1): 168-178.

Savatovic S, Tepic A, Sumic Z, Nikolic M, 2009. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice. Journal of  APTEF 40(1): 95-102.

Shamsudin R, Daud W R W, Takrif M S, Hassan O, Kamal A M, Abdullah A G L, 2007. Influence of temperature and soluble solid contents on rheological properties of the josapine variety of pineapple fruit (Ananas comsus L.). International Journal of  Engineering and Technology 5(1): 213-220.

Soto‐Reyes N, López‐Malo A, Rojas‐Laguna R, Gómez‐Salazar J A, Sosa‐Morales M E, 2017. Effects of microwave‐assisted hot water treatments designed against Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens) on grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) quality. Society of  Chemical Industry 41(1): 28-60.

Sung L S, Jung Y J, Hyun S K, Lee Y S, 2006. Constituents of Nelumbo Nucifera Stamens. Food & function, 82(1): 825-830.

Talens C, Álvarez-Sabatel S, Rios Y, Rodríguez R, 2017. Effect of a new microwave-dried orange fibre ingredient vs. a commercial citrus fibre on texture and sensory properties of gluten-free muffins. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 44(1): 83-88.

Thiruvengadam M, Baskar V, Seung-Hyun Chung, K.-M, 2016. Effects of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid on the content of phytochemicals and their gene expression profiles and biological activity in turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa). Plant Growth Regulation 80(3): 377-390.

Vandreseen S, Quadri M G N, Souza J A R, Hotza D, 2009. Temperature effect on the rheological behavior of carrot juices. Journal of  Food Engineering, 92(6): 269-274.

Yousefi S, Emam-Djomeh Z, Mousavi S, Reza G G, 2012. Comparing the Effects of Microwave and Conventional Heating Methods on the Evaporation Rate and Quality Attributes of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Juice Concentrate. Food and Bioprocess Technology 5(4): 1328-1339.

عالمی ا، امام جمعه ز، میرزایی ح، ۱۳۹۱. اثر فشار و دمای تغلیظ بر برخی خصوصیات کیفی آب هندوانه، فصلنامه علوم و صنایع غذایی، تهران: انتشارات نوران.
فاطمی ح، ۱۳۸8، اصول تکنولوژی نگهداری مواد غذایی، تهران: انتشارات شرکت سهامی، 223-244.
طهماسبی پور م، دهقان نیا ج، قنبرزاده ب، سید­لو س، 1391، مدل سازی تغییرات رنگی طی خشک کردن انگور پیش تیمار شده با فراصوت و کربوکسی متیل سلولز و بررسی ویژگی­های حسی آن، فصلنامه علوم و فناوری­های نوین غذایی، تهران: انتشارات نور، ٧٩-٦١.
Afoakwa E. O, Paterson A, Fowler M, & Vieira J, 2008. Particle size distribution and compositional effects on textural properties and appearance of dark chocolates. Journal of  Food Engineering 87(1): 181-190.
Ashoush I, Gadallah M G, 2011. Effects of Different Heating Methods on the Quality Characteristics of Pomegranate Juice Concentrates. Egyptian Journal of food Science 40(1): 1-14.
Askari G R, Emam-Djomeh Z, Mousavi S M, 2008. An investigation of the effects of drying methods and conditions on drying characteristics and quality attributes of agricultural products during. Food & function 22(1): 45-55.
Cabral R A F, Orrego-Alzate C E, Gabas A L, Telis-Romero J, 2007. Rheological and thermophysical properties of blackberry juice. Tecnology Alimentary Campinas 6(1): 589-596.
Cano-Lamadrid M, Lech K, Michalska A, Wasilewsk M, Figiel A, Wojdyło A, Carbonell-Barrachinaa Á A, 2017. Influence of osmotic dehydration pre-treatment and combined drying method on physico-chemical and sensory properties of pomegranate arils, cultivar Mollar de Elche. Food Chemistry 232(1): 306-315.
Chang C H, Lin H Y, Chang C Y, Liu Y C, 2006. Comparisons on the antioxidant properties of fresh, freeze dried and hot air dried tomatoes. Journal of Food Engineering 77(1): 478-485.
Cortes A, Mara J C, Esteve F, Ana J, Frigola U, Francisco P, 2005. Changes in Carotenoids Including Geometrical Isomers and Ascorbic Acid Content in Orange-Carrot Juice during Frozen Storage. European Food Research and Technology 22(1): 125-131.
Dak M, Verma R C, Jaaffrey S NA, 2007. Effect of temperature and concentration on rheological properties of ‘Kesar’ mango juice. Journal of  Food Engineering 80(1): 1011-1015.
Dewanto V, Adom W, Liu R H, 2002. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry 25(50): 3010-3014.
Fazaeli M, Yousefi S H, Emam-Djomeh Z, 2013. Investigation on the effects of microwave and conventional heating methods on the phytochemicals of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) and black mulberry juices. Journal of Food Reserch 50(1): 568-573.
Garcia-Viguera C, Zafrilla P, Romero F, Abellan P, Artes F, Barberan F A T, 1999. Color stability of strawberry jam as affected by cultivar and storage temperature. Journal of  Food Science 64(1): 243-247.
Haard N F, Chism G W, 1996. Characteristics of edible plant tissues in Fennema OW, editor. Food chemistry. 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 11(1): 944-1011.
Hartley R D, Morrisson WH, Hilmmelsbach D S, Borneman W S, 1990. Cross-linking of cell wall phenolic arabinoxylans in graminac- eous plants. Phytochemistry 29(1): 3705-3709.
Hojjatpanah G, Fazaeli M, Emam-Djomeh Z, 2011. Effects of heating method and conditions on the quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate. Journal of Food Science & Technology 46(1): 956-962.
Ibarz R, Falguera V, Garvin A, Garza S, Pagan J, Ibarz A, 2009. Flow behaviour of clarified orange juice at low temperatures. Journal of Texture Studies 40(1) 456-445.
Jaspreet V, Sivakami S, Shahani S, Suthar A C, Banavalikar M M, 2003. Antihyperglycemic Effects of Three Extracts from Momordica Charantia. Journal of  Ethnopharmacology 88(1): 107-111.
Jesus D F M, Leite L F, Silva R D, Modesta V M, Matta L M C, 2007. Orange (Citrus Sinensis) Juice Concentration by Reverse Osmosis. Journal of  Food Engineering 81(2): 287-291.
Juszczak L, Fortuna T, 2004. Effect of temperature and soluble solid content on the viscosity of cherry juice concentrate. International Agrophysics 18(1): 17-21.
Kaya A, Sozer N, 2005. Rheological behavior of sour pomegranate juice concentrates (Punica granatum L.). International Journal of  Food Science and Technology 40(1): 223-227 .
Kim K H, Tsao R R, Yang Cui S W, 2006. Phenolic acid profiles and antioxidant activities of wheat bran extracts and the effect of hydrolysis conditions. Food Chemistry 95(1): 466-473.
Maskan A, Medeni D, 2006. Production of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Juice Concentrate by Various Heating Methods: Colour Degradation and Kinetics. Journal of  Food Engineering, 72(1): 218-220.
Medeni M, 2006. Production of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Juice Concentrate by Various Heating Methods: Colour Degradation and Kinetics. Journal of  Food Engineering 72(3): 218-220.
Mohamadi Sani A, Hedayati G, Arianfar A, 2013. Effect of temperature and concentration on density and rheological properties of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Inodorus) juice. Nutrition & Food Science: 168-178.
Nawaz H, Aslam S M, Rehman A A u, Tul M. S, Saima M, 2018. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Oven Heated and Microwave Treated Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Free Radicals & Antioxidants 8(1): 89-95.
Nicoli MC, Anese M, Parpinael MT, Franceschi S, Lerici CR, 1997. Study on loss and formation of antioxidants during processing and storage. Cancer Lett .114: 71–4.
Re R, Bramley P M, Rice-Evans C, 2002. Effects of food processing on flavonoids and lycopene status in a Mediterranean tomato variety. Free Rad Res 36(1): 80-10.
Rhim J W, Nunes R V, Jones V A, Swartzel K R, 1989. Kinetics of color change of grape juice generated using linearly increasing temperature. Journal of Food Sci 54(1): 776-777.
Samani B H, Khoshtaghaza M. H, Zareifourosh M. H, Eshtiagh M. N, Rostami I, 2016. Design, development and evaluation of an automatic fruit-juice pasteurization system using microwave - ultrasonic waves. Journal of  Food Science and Technology 53(1): 88-103.
Sanchez J Y, Ruiz M, Raventos J. M, Auleda E, Hernandez, 2010. “Progressive Freeze Concentration of Orange Juice in a Pilot Plant Falling Film.” Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 11 (4): 644–51.
Sani M, Hedayati G, Arianfar A, 2013. Effect of temperature and concentration on density and rheological properties of melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Inodorus) juice. Nutrition & Food Science, 11(1): 168-178.
Savatovic S, Tepic A, Sumic Z, Nikolic M, 2009. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice. Journal of  APTEF 40(1): 95-102.
Shamsudin R, Daud W R W, Takrif M S, Hassan O, Kamal A M, Abdullah A G L, 2007. Influence of temperature and soluble solid contents on rheological properties of the josapine variety of pineapple fruit (Ananas comsus L.). International Journal of  Engineering and Technology 5(1): 213-220.
SotoReyes N, LópezMalo A, RojasLaguna R, GómezSalazar J A, SosaMorales M E, 2017. Effects of microwaveassisted hot water treatments designed against Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens) on grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) quality. Society of  Chemical Industry 41(1): 28-60.
Sung L S, Jung Y J, Hyun S K, Lee Y S, 2006. Constituents of Nelumbo Nucifera Stamens. Food & function, 82(1): 825-830.
Talens C, Álvarez-Sabatel S, Rios Y, Rodríguez R, 2017. Effect of a new microwave-dried orange fibre ingredient vs. a commercial citrus fibre on texture and sensory properties of gluten-free muffins. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 44(1): 83-88.
Thiruvengadam M, Baskar V, Seung-Hyun Chung, K.-M, 2016. Effects of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid on the content of phytochemicals and their gene expression profiles and biological activity in turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa). Plant Growth Regulation 80(3): 377-390.
Vandreseen S, Quadri M G N, Souza J A R, Hotza D, 2009. Temperature effect on the rheological behavior of carrot juices. Journal of  Food Engineering, 92(6): 269-274.
Yousefi S, Emam-Djomeh Z, Mousavi S, Reza G G, 2012. Comparing the Effects of Microwave and Conventional Heating Methods on the Evaporation Rate and Quality Attributes of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Juice Concentrate. Food and Bioprocess Technology 5(4): 1328-1339.