تأثیر نوع روغن بر میزان تشکیل آکریل‌آمید در سیب‌زمینی سرخ‌شده

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/fr.2021.42255.1767

چکیده

زمینه مطالعاتی: آکریل‌آمید توسط آژانس بین‌المللی تحقیقات سرطان (IARC) در دسته مواد احتمالی ایجاد سرطان طبقه‌بندی می‌شود که در اثر حرارت شدید در مواد غذایی ایجاد می‌گردد. هدف: با توجه به اینکه بیشترین مقادیر آکریل-آمید در سیب‌زمینی سرخ‌شده و فراورده‌های مشابه آن تشکیل می‌شود، در این مطالعه به تأثیر نوع روغن بر میزان تشکیل آکریل‌آمید در سیب‌زمینی سرخ‌شده پرداخته شده است. روش کار: چهار نوع روغن، آفتابگردان، سویا، کانولا و یک نوع روغن سرخ‌کردنی (حاوی ترکیبات روغن پالم اولئین، پالم سوپر اولئین و روغن آفتابگردان) به مدت 10 ساعت در دمای °C180 تحت حرارت قرار گرفته و در فواصل زمانی 3 ساعت، سیب‌زمینی‌ها داخل روغن به مدت 5 دقیقه سرخ شده و در هر مرحله از سرخ شدن، نمونه روغن و سیب‌زمینی تهیه گردید. مقادیر آکریل‌آمید، عدد پراکسید، عدد آنیزیدین، عدد توتوکس و پروفایل اسیدهای چرب اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج: با افزایش یافتن طول مدت حرارت‌دهی روغن، مقادیر عدد پراکسید، عدد آنیزیدین و در مجموع عدد توتوکس نیز افزایش یافت. بیشترین مقدار عدد توتوکس پس از 10 ساعت حرارت‌دهی به ترتیب در روغن سویا (76/46)، روغن آفتابگردان (14/42)، روغن سرخ‌کردنی (45/32) و روغن کانولا (57/29) اندازه گیری شد. مقادیر آکریل‌آمید سیب‌زمینی نیز با افزایش زمان حرارت دهی روغن روند افزایشی داشت، بطوریکه محدوده مقادیر آکریل‌آمید در سیب‌زمینی‌های سرخ‌شده در روغن سویا (µg/kg1056-73)، روغن آفتابگردان (µg/kg963-72)، روغن سرخ‌کردنی (µg/kg465-60) و روغن کانولا (µg/kg394-57) بدست آمد. نتیجه‌گیری نهایی: بر اساس میزان اکسیداسیون روغن‌های مورد مطالعه که در اثر آن ترکیبات ثانویه ایجاد می‌شوند، روغن سویا که دچار بیشترین اکسیداسیون شده بود دارای بالاترین مقدار آکریل‌آمید بوده و در روغن‌های دیگر نیز بین میزان اکسیداسیون و تشکیل آکریل‌آمید همبستگی بالایی وجود داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Oil Type on the Formation of Acrylamide in French Fries

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrdad Ashouri 1
  • Maryam Gharachorloo 2
  • Masoud Honarvar 3
1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Acrylamide, also known as acrylic amide and prop-2-enamide, is a white, odorless, crystalline, water-soluble solid, with the chemical formula C3H5NO and relative molecular mass of 71.08. Acrylamide is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a probable human carcinogen. Acrylamide is formed in some foods such as potato chips, French fries, and toast due to heating. French fries are one of the most popular products in the world; their texture characteristics and special taste are attractive to customers. The sensory attributes of French fries depend both on the raw material and technological parameters used for French fries production. A factor affecting the flavor and texture of French fries is the frying (temperature, time, and type of frying oil). They are widely consumed among teenagers and young people in the community, which makes this age group more exposed to the dangers of acrylamide. The major pathway leading to acrylamide formation in foods is a part of the Maillard reaction with free amino acid (Asparagine) and reducing sugars through the decarboxylation of the Schiff base in a Strecker-type reaction. Although the formation of acrylamide in foods has its major routes through asparagine and reducing sugars, several other formation routes are suggested via Acrolein and ammonia. Oil is one of the most important components in the preparation of French fries due to its heat transfer and effects on taste. Due to the use of oil at high temperatures for a long time, the deteriorative chemical processes of hydrolysis, oxidation, and polymerization occur. Finally, various compounds such as aldehydes, epoxides, hydroxy ketones, and decarboxylated compounds are formed; these compounds can be reacting with amino acids. Therefore, these compounds may react with the asparagine in potatoes and increase the concentration of acrylamide in fried potato products.
Materials and methods: 15 kg of Agria potatoes were prepared from the (SPI) Institute. Four kinds of oil (Sunflower oil, frying oil, and canola oil) were purchased from a chain store and soybean oil prepared from Korosh food industries. 1.5 liters of oil were poured into the fryer, the temperature reached 180°C and, stabilized. After 1 hour, 200 g of sliced potatoes (2×2×2 cm) was poured into the hot oil. Frying time was 5 min. Heated oil and fried potatoes were sampled for testing. The fryer remained on at 180°C. After 3 hours, the second sample of raw potatoes was fried for 5 min. The third and fourth samples were prepared 3 hours apart. GC-ECD method was used for acrylamide measurement. 2 g of sample and 20 ml of distilled water were poured into the Falcon tube. Then 3 ml of Carrez I, II solution was added to the solution and centrifuged at 5000 rpm. The water layer was discarded. Then 2 ml of hexane was added. The solution was centrifuged again. The hexane layer was discarded. 10 ml of the remaining solution was extracted with potassium bromide, bromic acid, and bromine water and injected into the GC. The fatty acid profile test was performed by ISIRI 13126 2 & 4 methods. ISIRI 4093 was used as a method for Peroxide value measurement. Anisidine and totox values are determined by methods defined in ISIRI 4093 was calculated by the ISIRI 4093 method. Data were verified by ANOVA variance analysis.
Results and discussion: According to the obtained results, values of total monounsaturated fatty acids are canola oil (%65.74), frying oil (%39.32), sunflower oil (%23.11), and soybean oil (%22.00). Also total polyunsaturated fatty were determined 65.41, 61.04, 26.21 and 43.99% for sunflower, soybean, canola and frying oils respectively. Oils containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have less resistant to oxidation than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). Oxidative stability decreases with increasing number of double bonds. Accordingly, oleic acid has the highest thermal stability among unsaturated fatty acids, followed by linoleic acid and the lowest stability of linolenic acid. The results of peroxide, anisidine, and totox values determination showed that changes in these factors are affected by time (P<0.05). At most heating times, the highest values of peroxide were observed in soybean oil, and the lowest values were observed in frying oil (P<0.05). In all treatments by increasing of heating time, the amounts of anisidine and totox values increased significantly (P<0.05). The results of statistical analysis of different treatments indicated that in most heating times, the highest levels of anisidine and totox values and the lowest values were observed in soybean oil and canola oil respectively. Increased Peroxide value indicates that the level of the primary lipid oxidation products increased, which resulted in the formation of hydroperoxides. Peroxide and anisidine values indicate the rate of oxidation reactions at the beginning and the end of the process. In fact, the totox values simultaneously measures the amount of peroxides and their degraded products and provides a better estimate of the progress of oxidative degradation of oils and fats. Based on the results obtained from calculate of the totox value, the oxidation ratio of the studied oils was as follows:
Soybean oil > Sunflower oil > Frying oil > Canola oil.
According to the results, by increasing of heating time, the amounts of acrylamide in all treatments increased significantly (P<0.05). Therefore, the highest amounts of acrylamide were obtained in soybean oil and the lowest values were observed in canola oil (P<0.05). The correlation coefficient between totox value and acrylamide at different heating time was as follows: In the first hour of heating (R2 = 0.967), in the fourth hour of heating (R2 = 0.95), after 7 hours (R2 = 0.646) and in the tenth hour of heating was equal (R2 = 0.98), respectively. It shows that the levels of totox and acrylamide had a high correlation with each other and in fact the values of totox had a direct effect on the values of acrylamide.
Conclusion: The amounts of unsaturated fatty acids are effective in the oxidation of oils, and this effect is mostly due to double bonds. Oxidation of oils produces primary oxidation (hydroperoxides) that are degraded and secondary oxidation products such as aldehydes, ketones, and other might be produced. Secondary oxidation products in oil might be converted to acrylamide precursors in food without the presence of sugars, and by increasing the production of these products, more acrylamide might be formed. The results of this study showed that there is a high correlation between acrylamide in fried potato samples with the totox values in the oils. Therefore, the type of oil and heating duration influenced on formation of acrylamide in French fries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acrylamide
  • Anisidine value
  • Fatty acid
  • Oxidation
  • Peroxide value
  • Totox value
بختیاری د، 1394. بررسی نقش روغن­های پالم اولئین، آفتابگردان و حالت تلفیقی بر میزان تولید آکریل­آمید در چیپس سیب­زمینی. فرآوری و تولید مواد غذایی، 5(4)، 10-1.
بیکی ح و همدمی ن، 1395. تأثیر آنزیم بری، پیش خشک کردن و شرایط سرخ کردن بر روی خصوصیات کیفی خلال سیب­زمینی سرخ شده. نشریه پژوهش­های صنایع غذایی، 26(1)، 187-177.
جمشیدیان م و ماهرانی ب، 1390. تعیین میزان آکریل­آمید در انواع چیپس­های سیب­زمینی تولیدی ایران با روش گاز کروماتوگرافی- طیف سنج جرمی. علوم غذایی و تغذیه، 9(1)، 14-5.
سازمان ملی استاندارد ایران، 1396. روغن­ها و چربی­های گیاهی و حیوانی- اندازه­گیری مقدار پراکسید-روش یدومتری با تعیین نقطه پایانی به روش چشمی. استاندارد ملی ایران، 4179.
سازمان ملی استاندارد ایران، 1395. روغن­ها و چربی­های گیاهی و حیوانی- اندازه­گیری عدد آنیزیدین-روش آزمون. استاندارد ملی ایران، 4093.
سازمان ملی استاندارد ایران، 1394. روغن­ها و چربی­های گیاهی و حیوانی-کروماتوگرافی گازی متیل استرهای اسید چرب -قسمت 2: تهیه متیل استرهای اسیدهای چرب. استاندارد ملی ایران، 2-13126.
سازمان ملی استاندارد ایران، 1394. روغن­ها و چربی­های گیاهی و حیوانی-کروماتوگرافی گازی متیل استرهای اسید چرب -قسمت 4: اندازه­گیری با کروماتوگرافی گازی موئینه. استاندارد ملی ایران، 4-13126.
مولودی ف، قجربیگی پ، حاج حسینی بابایی الف و محمدپور اصل الف،1394. ارزیابی خصوصیات شیمیایی و اکسایشی روغن­های زیتون فرابکر وارداتی. علوم غذایی و تغذیه، 12، 34-27.
قوامی م، قراچورلو م و عزت پناه ح، 1382. اثر سرخ کردن بر خصوصیات کیفی روغن استفاده‌شده در صنعت چیپس سیب­زمینی. علوم کشاورزی، 9، 15-1.
نواب دانشمند ف و قوامی م،1390. بررسی اثر دما و زمان ‌بر تولید و شکست هیدروپراکسیدها در روغن­های کانولا و سویا. علوم غذایی و تغذیه، 9، 72-61.
Akoh CC & Min DB, 2008. Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition and Biotechnology. CRC Press.
Bakhtiary D, Asadollahi S & Ardakani SAY, 2013. Determination of the amount of Acrylamide Formation during Frying of Potato in Sesame Oil, Palm Olein and the blend of them. International Journal of Engineering Research and Application 3(6): 210-214.
Capuano E, Oliviero T, Acar OC, Gokmen V & Fogliano V, 2010. Lipid oxidation promotes acrylamide formation in fat-rich model systems. Food Research International 43: 1021-1026.
Choe E & Min DB, 2007. Chemistry of deep-fat frying oils. Journal of Food Science 72(5): R77-R86.
Dunford NT, 2015. Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Seed Oil. Pp. 465-490. In: Martinez-Force E, Dunford NT & Salas JJ (eds). Sunflower: Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization. Elsevier.
FAO/WHO, 2002. Health Implications of Acrylamide in Food: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Consultation. World Health Organization.
Gunstone F, 2011. Vegetable oils in food technology: composition, properties and uses. John Wiley & Sons.
Halford NG & Curtis T, 2019. Acrylamide In Food. World Scientific Publishing Company.
Hogervorst JG, Schouten LJ, Konings EJ, Goldbohm RA & Van den brandt PA, 2007. A prospective study of dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers 16(11): 2304-2313.
Houhoula DP, Oreopoulou V & Tzia C, 2002. A kinetic study of oil deterioration during frying and a comparison with heating. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 79(2): 133-137.
IARC, 1994. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogen Risk to Humans: Some Industrial Chemicals. World Health Organization.
Keramat J, Lebail A, Prost C & Soltanizadeh N, 2011. Acrylamide in foods: chemistry and analysis: A review. Food and Bioprocess Technology 4: 340-363.
Kita A & Lisinska G, 2005. The influence of oil type and frying temperatures on the texture and oil content of French fries. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85: 2600-2604.
Kotsiou K, Tasioula margari M, Fiore A, Gokmen V & Fogliano V, 2013. Acrylamide formation and colour development in low-fat baked potato products as influenced by baking conditions and oil type. European Food Research and Technology 236: 843-851.
Krishnakumar T & Visvanathan R, 2014. Acrylamide in food products: A review. Journal of Food Processing and Technology 5(7).
Lim PK, Jinap S, Sanny M, Tan CP & Khatib A, 2014. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips. Journal of Food Science 79(1): T115-T121.
Matthäus B, 2006. Utilization of high‐oleic rapeseed oil for deep‐fat frying of French fries compared to other commonly used edible oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 108: 200-211.
Mucci L, Dickman P, Steineck G, Adami H & Augustsson K, 2003. Dietary acrylamide and cancer of the large bowel, kidney, and bladder: absence of an association in a population-based study in Sweden. British Journal of Cancer 88: 84-89.
Notardonato I, Avino P, Centola A, Cinelli G & Russo MV, 2013. Validation of a novel derivatization method for GC–ECD determination of acrylamide in food. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405: 6137-6141.
O'brien RD, 2008. Fats and oils: formulating and processing for applications. CRC Press.
Shahidi F, 2005. Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Edible Oil and Fat Products: Processing Technologies. John Wiley & Sons.