تأثیرروش پخت بر باقی مانده‌ی فلزات سنگین در گوشت تعدادی از گونه‌های ماهی دریای خزر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیات علمی

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی

3 دانشگاع علوم کشاورزی ساری

10.22034/fr.2021.42720.1772

چکیده

در این پژوهش، تأثیر چهار روش پخت شامل مایکروویو، گریل کردن، کباب کردن و سرخ کردن بر روی میزان نه عنصر فلزی سمی شامل سرب، کادمیوم، آرسنیک، روی، مس، نیکل، کروم و منگنز در بافت عضله سه گونه از ماهی‌های پرمصرف دریای خزر همچون، ماهی سفید (Rutilus kutum)، کپور معمولی(Common carp) و کفال (Liza aurata) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای این منظور ابتدا مرحله هضم اسیدی با کمک اسید نیتریک صورت گرفت. عناصر مورد نظر توسط دستگاه نشر القای پلاسما قرائت شد. در ارتباط با اثر فرآیند پخت بر فلز کادمیم، در ماهی سفید کادمیوم در همه تیمار‌ها کاهش یافته بود و کمترین میزان کادمیوم در ماهی سفید کباب شده مشاهده شد. در ماهی سفید کمترین میزان کروم در تیمار‌های گریل شده و مایکروویو شده، مشاهده شد. در ماهی سفید گریل کردن و مایکروویو باعش کاهش کروم شدند. بیشترین میزان نیکل در ماهی سفید در نوع کباب شده آن مشاهده شد و نمونه گریل شده کمترین میزان را داشت. در ماهی سفید فقط روش کباب کردن باعث کاهش معنی دار مس گردید. در ماهی کفال همه تیمار‌ها باعث کاهش معنی دار این عنصر شدند؛ اما در سرخ کردن کمترین میزان این عنصر مشاهده شد. مقدار روی در دو ماهی کفال و کپور نسبت به سایر عناصر چشمگیر بود. فرآیند کباب کردن منجر به کاهش این عنصر گردید. کباب کردن و گریل کردن باعث کاهش معنی دار منگنز شد. در ماهی کفال و کپور بیشترین افت مربوط به نمونه‌های سرخ شده بود. در مجموع ماهی سفید سالم ترین گونه و ماهی کپور ناسالم ترین ماهی از بین سه گونه مذکور بودند. در مقایسه بین فرآیند‌های مختلف پخت نیز کباب کردن و پس از آن گریل کردن باعث بیشترین کاهش در مجموع فلزات سنگین سه ماهی و هفت عنصر شده بود و در مقابل، مایکروویو در اکثر موارد باعث حفظ این عناصر در ماهی پخته شده گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Cooking Method on the Heavy Metal Residues of Some Fish Species of Caspian Sea

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khalegh Golkar 2
  • parisa fallah 3
2 sanru
3 sanru
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Environmental pollution represents a major problem in both developed and underdeveloped countries. These metals are toxic to aquatic life at low concentrations, particularly in soft-water Such metals may be accumulated from water to higher levels in fish (USEPA, 1977). Fish species can accumulate heavy metals in their muscles. The content of metals in fish tissues and organs indicates the concentration of metals in the water and their food. Therefore, the problem of heavy metal contamination in fish is increasing global attention. Meanwhile, different fish tissues have different abilities to accumulate these metal elements due to the different chemical composition. The heavy metals concentrations of fish fillets can be affected by processing or cooking methods and therefore, it is important to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in raw and cooked fish fillets and it is possible to reduce the heavy metal concentration in fish fillets by choosing a suitable method of cooking (Atta et al., 1997; Ersoy et al., 2006; Diaconescu et al., 2013).
Materials and methods: Specimens of white fish (Rutilus kutum), carp (Common carp), mullet (Liza aurata) each in three numbers in equal sizes were purchased freshly from Sari fish market in December 2017 and after unloading The viscera and scales were immediately transferred to the laboratory of the Department of Food Science and Engineering of SANRU and stored in the refrigerator. Fish samples were prepared by four different cooking methods. For this purpose, a sample weighing 100 g was removed from the inner tissue of each fillet and in the next step, each sample was cooked for the required time for optimal consumption. These conditions are for microwave (Solardem model, made by LG company) for 10 minutes at 900 watts, grilling (in a one-floor electric oven made by Baking Industries Company, Mashhad) for 20 minutes at 180 °C, roasting (in an electric oven one Construction floor of Mashhad Baking Industries Company) was 180 degrees for 20 minutes and frying (made by Pars Khazar Company) was 180 degrees for 4 minutes. Measurement of heavy metals: For this purpose, the acid digestion step was performed with the help of nitric acid. To digest the samples, the first one gram of each sample was dissolved in 10 ml of 1 M nitric acid, then boiled until complete digestion. In the next step, the filtration operation was performed and the resulting precipitate was washed with 1 M nitric acid and transferred to a 25 ml test tube and the rest was made up to volume with distilled water. The desired elements (lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, and manganese) were read by the plasma induction diffuser (ICP_AES model 4100).
Results: Regarding the effect of the cooking process on the cadmium element, cadmium was decreased in all treatments and the least amount of cadmium was observed in roasted white fish. In the white fish, the lowest chromium content was observed in grill and microwave treatments. Grill and microwave processes were reduced in chrome in the white fish. The highest amount of nickel element in the white fish was observed in the roasted type and the lowest amount of grilled sample. In the white fish, only the roasting method caused a significant decrease in copper. In mullet fish, all treatments reduced this element significantly, but the lowest amount was found in frying. Zinc content in mullet and carp fish was significantly higher than other elements. The roasting process resulted in a decrease in this element. The roasting and grilling process significantly reduced Mn. In the white fish, the least amount was related to the frying method. In mullet and carp fish, the highest decrease was in fried samples.
Conclusion: Overall, whitefish and carp fish were the unhealthiest fish among the three species. In comparison between different cooking processes, roasting and after that grilling resulted in the highest reduction in the sum of three heavy metals and seven elements, in contrast, in the most cases microwaves preserved these elements in cooked fish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fish
  • Heavy metals
  • microwave
  • Grilling
  • Roasting
  • Frying
Amini Ranjbar  G H and Sotoudehnia  F, 2005. Investigation of heavy metal accumulation in muscle tissue of Mugil auratus in relation to standard length, weight, age and sex. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal 14: 1-18 [In Persian].
Askary Sary A, Velayatzadeh M, 2013. Bioaccumulation Lead and Zinc metals in the liver and muscle of Cyprinus carpio, Rutilus frissi kuttom and Liza aurats. Journal of Food Hygene 3 (1): 89-107 (Persian).
Atta M B, L A Sabaie, M A Noaman and H E Kassab, 1997. The effect of cooking on the concentration of heavy metals in fish (Tilapia nilotica). Food Chemistry 58: 1-4.
Bala, FE, Ikujenlola, AV, Omobuwajo, TO, 2018. Effect of processing on the heavy metal contents of Sarotherodon galilaeus, Tilapia zillii, and Clarias gariepinus from two water bodies in Osun State, Nigeri. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 42 (2), e13493.
Bassey FI, Oguntunde FC, Iwegbue CM, Osabor VN, Edem CA. 2014.  Effects of processing on the proximate and metal contents in three fish species from Nigerian coastal waters. Food Science and Nutrition. 2(3): 272-281.
Copat Ch, Arena G, Fiore M, Ledda C, Fallico R, Sciacca S, Ferrante M, 2013. Heavy metals concentrations in fish and shellfish from eastern Mediterranean Sea: Consumption advisories. Food Chemical Toxicology 53 (43): 33-37.
Diaconescu C, Fantaneru GL, Urdes L, Vidu B V and S Diaconescu, 2013. Influence of cooking methods over the heavy metal and lipid content of fish meat. Romanian Biotechnological. Letter 18(3): 8279-8283.
Elsagh A, 2011. Determination of some heavy metals in Rutilus frisii kutum and Cyprinus carpio fillet from south Caspian Sea. Veterinary researches biological products (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi) 89: 33-44 (Persian).
Elsagh A, 2012. Determination of Zinc, Copper, Cobalt, and Manganese intensity in Rutilus frisii kutum and Crprinus carpio fishes of Caspian sea. Journal of Gorgan University Medical Science 13 (4): 107-113 (Persian).
Ersoy B, Ozeren A, 2009. The effect of cooking methods on mineral and vitamin contents of African catfish. Food Chemistry 115 (2): 419-422.
Ersoy B, Yanar Y, Kucukgulmez, A, Celik M, 2006. Effects of four cooking methods on the heavy metal concentrations of sea bass fillets (Dicentrarchus labrax Linne). Food Chemistry 99 (94): 748-751.
FDA, 2001. Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Controls Guidance, third ed. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, USA.
Gheisari E, Raissy M, Rahimi E, 2016. The Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Lead and Cadmium Contents of Shrimp and Lobster. Journal of Food Biosciencr Technology 6 (2): 53-58.
Gokoglu N, Yerlikaya P, Cengiz E, 2004. Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition and mineral contents of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food Chemistry 84 (1): 19-22.
Golgolipour S, Khodanazary A, Chanemi K, 2017. Effect of different cooking methods on changes of free fatty acids, thiobarbitoric acid, heavy metal (Ni, Cr, Co, Cd, Pb) and sensory properties of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodoni della). Iraninan Food Science Technology Research Journal 12 (5): 630-638 (Persian).
Hajeb P, Sloth JJ, Shakibazadeh S, Mahyudin N, Afsah-Hejri L, 2014. Toxic elements in food: occurrence, binding, and reduction approaches. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 13, 457-472.
Heshmati, A., Karami-Momtaz, J., Nili-Ahmadabadi, A., Ghadimi, S., 2017. Dietary exposure to toxic and essential trace elements by consumption of wild and farmed carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) in Iran. Chemosphere 173, 207-215.
Hassanpour M, Rajaei Gh, Karimi M H S, Ferdosian F, Maghsoudloorad R, 2014. Determination of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu) in Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) from Miankaleh international wetland and human health risk. Journal of Mazandaran University Medical Science 24 (113): 163-170 (Persian).
Hosseini H, Mahmoudzadeh M, Rezaei M, Mahmoudzadeh L, Khaksar R, Karimian Khosroshahi N, Babakhani A, 2014. Effect of different cooking methods on minerals, vitamins and nutritional quality indices of kutum roach (Rutilus frisii kutum). Food Chemistry 148 (1): 86-91.
Kalogeropoulos N, Karravoltosos S, Sakellari A, Avramidopu S, Dassenakis M, Scoullos M, 2012. Heavy metals in raw, fried and grilled Mediterranean finfish and shellfish. Food Chemistry Toxicology 50 (4): 3702-3708.
MAFF. 1995. Monitoring and surveillance of non-radioactive contaminants in the aquatic environment and activities regulating the disposal of waste at sea 1993. Aquatic environment Monitoring Report N.O 44. Directorate of fisheries Research, Lowestofr.
Marimuthu, K., Geraldine, A.D., Kathiresan, S., Xavier, R., Arockiaraj, J., Sreeramanan, S, 2014. Effect of three different cooking methods on proximate and mineral composition of Asian sea bass (Latescalcarifer, Bloch). Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology 23 (5),468-474.
Momenzadeh Z, Hodanazary A, Chanemi K, 2017. Effect of different methods of cooking on changes of oxidation lipid, heavy metal composition and sensory properties of Epinephelus coioides. Iranian food science and technology research journal 61 (13): 45-54 (Persian).
Monsefifard F, Imanpour Namin J, Heidary S, 2012. Concentration of heavy and toxic metals Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg in liver and muscles of Rutilus frisii kutum during spawning season with respect to growth parameters. IJFS 11 (4): 825-839.
Nurulnadia, MY, Nik-Nurasyikin, NMA, Ling, KH, Zahid, BM, Adiana, GH, Nurlemsha, BI. 2021. Metal concentrations in fresh and salt-dried anchovy, Encrasicholina devisi, and estimation of target hazard quotient for consumers in Kuala Terengganu. Regional Studies in Marine Science 41 101595.
Özparlak H, Arslan G and Arslan E, 2012. Determination of some metal levels in muscle tissue of nine fish species from Beyşehir Lake Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 12 :761-770.
Salehi Borban S, Gharachorloo M, Zamani F, 2017. Check amount of heavy metals in muscle and fish oil Rutilus frissi kuttom, Clupeonella cultriventris and Liza aurats. Journal of Food Hygene 6 (24): 75-104 (Persian).
Shokrzadeh M, Saeedi Saravi S S, 2009. The study of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and chromium) in three species of most consumed fish sampled from Gorgan coast (Iran). Toxicol Environment Chemistry 92 (1): 71-73.
Tengku Nur Alia TKA, Hing LS, Sim SF, Pradit S, Ahmad A, Ong MC. 2020. Comparative study of raw and cooked farmed sea bass (Lates calcarifer) in relation to metal content and its estimated human health risk. Marine Pollution Bulletin 153:111009.
USEPA (1977). United State Environmental Protection Agency. Quality criteria for water. Office of Water and Hazardous Materials, Washington, DC, USA.