تأثیرجایگزینی آرد گندم با پودر هویج بر ویژگی‌های کیفی کیک روغنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه مهندسی علوم و صنایع غذایی واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

زمینه مطالعاتی: غذاهای فراسودمند عامل اصلی برای رساندن ترکیبات مفید به بدن در قالب رژیم غذایی هستند که علاوه ‌بر خواص تغذیه‌ای، خطر ابتلاء به بیماری‌های مزمن را کاهش می‌دهند. هدف: از این‌رو هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی کیک روغنی غنی شده با پودر هویج که منبعی غنی از فیبرهای خوراکی، بتاکاروتن و املاح معدنی بود. روش­کار: در این مطالعه به‌منظور تولید کیک روغنی فراسودمند، چهار نوع کیک با جایگزینی پودر هویج (در سطوح صفر، 5، 10 و 15 درصد) با آرد گندم در سه تکرار تهیه گردید و ویژگی‌های کیفی (میزان رطوبت، رنگ مغزی، بافت، افت وزنی پخت)، تغذیه‌ای (فنل‌کل، DPPH و محتوای آکریل‌آمید) و حسی در قالب طرح آماری کاملاً تصادفی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج: با افزودن پودر هویج در غلظت‌های مختلف رطوبت نمونه‌های کیک را بطور معنی‌داری افزایش  یافت  (05/0P<). از سوی دیگر از میزان افت پخت وزنی کاسته شده‌است (05/0P<) میزان مؤلفه‌ی L* کاهش و میزان مؤلفه‌ی a* و b* را افزایش داد (05/0P<). از نظر ویژگی‌های بافتی نمونه‌های کیک تهیه شده با مقادیر 5 و 10 ٪ پودر هویج سختی پایین‌تری داشتند (05/0P<)، در صورتی که پیوستگی مقدار 15 ٪ بالا بود. با افزودن پودرهویج، میزان ترکیبات فنلی و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی نمونه‌های کیک به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت (05/0P<)، در حالی‌که محتوای آکریل‌آمید کاهش نشان داد (05/0P<). بیش‌ترین امتیاز پذیرش کلی به نمونة حاوی 5 ٪ پودر هویج تعلق داشت. نتیجه گیری نهایی: در بین تیمارهای مورد آزمایش همواره کمترین امتیاز حسی به نمونه حاوی 15 ٪ پودر هویج تعلق داشت ولی نمونه‌های حاوی 5 و 10 ٪ پودر هویج در بسیاری موارد امتیاز قابل ‌قبولی داشته و درنتیجه به ‌عنوان بهترین سطوح پیشنهادی جهت تولید کیک روغنی غنی از ترکیبات مغذی و فیبرهای خوراکی پیشنهاد می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Replacement of wheat flour with carrot powder on qualitative parameters of cake

نویسندگان [English]

  • N Mehdizadeh
  • L Roufegari Nejhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction:The functional foods are the main factor in delivering useful components to the body in form of diet which in addition to having nutritional properties also reduce the risk of chronic diseases (Khelgati and zomorrodi 1395). Cake is one of the most popular bakery products which is used among every groups of society because it is ready to use and economical (jad et al. 2017). the purpose of this study was to investigate the cupcake enriched with carrot powder which is a rich source of edible fibers β caroten and minerals.
Material and methods: in this study in order to produce functional oily cake first the dough cake must be produced and for that the ingredients were mixed in two stages. In the first stage solid materials which are flour, sugar, Ammonium bicarbonate, vanilla, and salt, were mixed with a low speed in the mixer for about half a minute, then while mixer was working with a low speed, milk was added so that the dough cake was formed (note that in the samples containing the carrot powder, the powder was added in the first stage along with the other solid materials.) In the second stage the speed of the mixing was increased and the rest of the milk, oil and egg was added to the mixture and was mixed with a medium speed for about 90 seconds. finally, the mixture was put in the oven with the temperature of 150 °C for 21 minutes (Payan 1385). Effect of substituting carrot powder in different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%) with flour on qualitative properties (moisture, color, texture, weight decrease after cooking) along with nutritional characteristics (Acrylamide, total phenol, and DPPH) was evaluated in a form of completely random statistical plan.
Results and disscution: Adding carrot powder in different densities considerably increased the moisture of the cake (P<0.05), the maximum values are for the cake with 15 % carrot powder (Table 3). In another study which investigates the addition of apple powder in production of cake (Khelgati and zomorrodi 1395) similar result are reported. On the other hand, the baking weight loss has decreased (P<0.05), and the the minimum result is for the cake which contained 15% (Table 3). Similar studies have been done considering the addition of apple powder in cake (Khelgati and Zomorrodi 1395) and addition of Prickly pear powder in sponge cake (Kim et al. 2012). The amount of L* has been reduced and the amount of a* and b* has been increased (P<0.05), the minimum amount of L* and also the maximum amount of it was related to the sample with 15% powder (Table 4). In another study a reverse result has been observed adding Persian Gum and carrot powder (Nouri et al. 2017) on the features of donut. Considering the structural features, the cake which was produced by adding %5 and %15 carrot powder, did have less stiffness (P<0.05) while the unity of the sample with 15% carrot powder was more. Similar results about the hardening of cakes (Gomez et al. 2008; Lebesi and Tzia 2011) was observed. By adding the carrot powder the phenol compounds and antioxidants activity of the cake samples considerably increased (Fig 1). Similar results in the research of (Sudha et al. 2007) which added dried apple scum by substituting the wheat flour in sponge cake was observed while the acryamil content was reduced. The lease result was in the sample with 15% powder (Fig 2). Similar results in the research of (Sudha et al. 2007) in the antioxidants effects of Bamboo leaves and green tea essence and Rosemary essence was observed. From the total acception point of view the samples with 5 and 10% carrot powder gained the maximum credits. Similar results were gained by sensory evaluators in the study of Hernandez Ortega 2013) by adding the carrot powder scum by substituting flour to the cookie which the maximum results of total acception was for the sample with 5% carrot powder.
Conclusion: regarding the results, it can be expressed that nowadays due to increasing awareness in the field of food stuffs, the request for the production of functional healthy food stuffs with high nutritional value, low fat, high fiber has increased. Adding fiber to peoples main and daily used food such as bakery products, cake, cookie and donut, can be a pragmatic and suitable way for increase of fiber intake in people’s diet. Carrot is a rich mixture of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber and polyphenols which leads to high antioxidants character of this compound in foodstuffs, therefore it has a lot of healthy effects such as boosting the safety system, increasing the absorption of calcium and reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Adding carrot powder led to the decrease of acrylamide level while being economic (P<0.05). among the tested samples always the least sensory credit was related to the sample with 15% carrot powder but samples with 5% and 10% carrot powder did have reasonable credits in many tests and there fore are recommended as the best levels for producing the cake from nutritional components and edible fibers.

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