تأثیر پوشش های هیدروکلوئیدی صمغ دانه ریحان و شاهی بر جذب روغن و ویژگی های کیفی هویج سرخ‏ شده

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 مدرس در دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

10.22034/fr.2021.38771.1723

چکیده

زمینه مطالعاتی: استفاده از پوشش های هیدروکلوئیدی، روشی مناسب برای کاهش جذب روغن درهنگام سرخ کردن محسوب می شود. هدف: هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی استفاده از صمغ های بومی ایران نظیر صمغ دانه یحان و شاهی به عنوان عامل پوشش دهنده بر خصوصیات کیفی هویج سرخ شده بود. روش کار: پوشش های صمغ دانه شاهی و ریحان هر یک به‌تنهایی در غلظت‏های 5/0 و 1 درصد (وزنی حجمی) و محلول 1 درصد از مخلوط صمغ ریحان و شاهی (با نسبت 1 به 1) تهیه شد. پس از پوشش دهی، درصد پوشش‏دهی، و پس از سرخ‏شدن، روغن جذب شده، رطوبت، بافت، رنگ و خصوصیات حسی نمونه‏ها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج: نتایج بدست آمده نشان داد که بیشترین درصد پوشش‏دهی مربوط به نمونه‏های 1 درصد صمغ دانه ریحان (21%)، مخلوط 1 درصد صمغ دانه شاهی-ریحان (17%) و 1 درصد صمغ دانه شاهی (66/15%) بود. کمترین مقدار پوشش‏دهی مربوط به نمونه شاهد بود (233/0%). نمونه شاهد کمترین مقدار رطوبت را داشت (66/56%) و پوشش‏دهی سبب افزایش رطوبت نمونه‏ها شد. نمونه‌های پوشش‏دهی شده با 1 درصد صمغ ریحان و مخلوط 1 درصد صمغ دانه ریحان-شاهی بیشترین مقدار رطوبت را داشتند (p <0.05). کمترین مقدار روغن جذب شده مربوط به نمونه‏های پوشش‏داده‏شده‏ با صمغ ریحان بود. سختی نمونه‏های پوشش‏داده‏شده‏ با غلظت 1 درصد صمغ دانه شاهی، ریحان و مخلوط صمغ دانه ریحان-شاهی به‏صورت‏ معنی‏دار‏ی کمتر از سایر نمونه‏ها بود (p <0.05). پوشش‏دهی نمونه‏های هویج تغییر معنی‏دار‏ی در خصوصیات حسی آن ایجاد ننمود. نتیجه گیری نهایی: با توجه به نتایج حاصله، نمونه پوشش‏داده‏شده‏ با 1 درصد صمغ ریحان با کمترین جذب روغن و بالاترین رطوبت و پذیرش کلی به عنوان بهترین نمونه انتخاب شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of basil seed gum and cress seed gum coatings on oil uptake and qualitative characteristics of fried carrot

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Motamedzadegan 1
  • Saeed Mirarab Razi 2
2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Deep frying is commonly used in the food industry to produce a range of food products with high consumer acceptability, even though high fat contributes to obesity and cardiovascular diseases (Lumanlan et al 2019). When the food absorbs the fat, it may change the composition, texture, size, and shape of the food, resulting in loss of nutrients specifically vitamins. There is a growing interest to know the methods that could minimize the oil uptake and to reduce the fat content of fried food (Lumanlan et al 2019). Oil uptake is affected by oil quality, product and oil temperature, frying duration, initial moisture content of food ingredients, product shape and content, porosity of coating, and the method of frying (Khazaei et al., 2019). Since a high oil intake is linked to the medical risk of obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and cancer, there is demand to develop products that absorb a smaller quantity of oil, leading to healthier fried foods. This has been a driving force in the food industry to develop novel products, machinery and food ingredients (Karimiet et al 2016). Using of gums to reduce the oil content is one of the simplest and most convenient methods which do not require variation in equipment design. Specifically, the hydrocolloid coatings are often known to reduce the oil uptake of fried foods. Basil seed gum (BSG) is a novel hydrocolloid extracted from Ocimum basilicum L. (Razi et al 2018), used in food product development as a gelling agent, thickener, edible film ingredient, fat replacer, and stabilizer (Razi et al 2019 a & b). Cress seed gum (CSG) (Lepidium sativum) belongs to the Brassicaceae family and is mostly cultivated in Iran, India, North America and some places in Europe. It contains a noticeable amount of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic acid which makes CSG a polyelectrolyte (Gharanjig et al 2020). Nowadays, due to high-fat product problems, people are tended to produce and consume low-fat foods with desirable quality.
The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of applying coatings based on BSG, CSG and a mixed solution of BSG and CSG as well as oil absorption, sensorial properties and textural characteristic of fried carrots.
Material and methods: BSG and CSG were purchased from Reyhan gum Persian Co., and carrot was prepared from local market. BSG and CSG solutions were prepared at concentrations of 0.5% and 1% (w/v) and 1% BSG-CSG mixture solution (1: 1 ratio). Carrots were washed and peeled and cut into 2cm. After-wards they were immediately immersed in hydrocolloid solutions at 20 °C for 2 min with a product weight to BSG and CSG solutions volume ratio of 1:3 (w/v). Frying was carried out in a controlled-temperature deep-fat fryer (Pars Khazar, Iran) filled with oil. Carrots were fried at 170 °C for 4 min. The coatings percent of samples was calculated based on adhered hydrocolloid to carrots surface. Moreover, absorbed and moisture were measured oil by using a solvent (n-hexane) and oven (105 °C), respectively. Besides, textural properties of fried carrots were measured by a texture analyzer (TA10-CT3, Brookfield, USA). Color parameters (L*, a* and b*) were measured by image j software. Sensorial properties of fried carrots were determined by a 5 point hedonic test and odor, taste, color, texture and total acceptance were measured. All experiments and measurements were carried out three times, and data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences between means were determined by Duncan’s multiple range tests. p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results and discussion: The results showed that BSG, CSG, and BSG-CSG mixture at the concentration of 1% had the highest coating percentage. Coating percentage is the amount of hydrocolloid coating adhering to the surface of carrots during immersion in the suspension prior to frying. The lowest amount of coating percentage was observed in the control sample. The moisture content of samples was determined by calculating the weight loss of the fried carrots upon drying in a convection oven at 105 °C until constant weight was reached. The control sample had the lowest moisture content and the coating increased the moisture content of the samples. Specimens coated with 1% BSG and 1% BSG-CSG mixture had the highest moisture content (p < 0.05). The lowest amount of absorbed oil was obtained in samples coated with BSG. There was no significance difference between control sample and those coated by CSG in amount of adsorbed oil. The hardness of the coated samples with 1% BSG, 1% CSG and 1% BSG-CSG mixture was significantly lower than other samples (p < 0.05). It could be due to a higher amount of moisture content at these samples. The control sample had the highest hardness value (p < 0.05). The lowest amount of L* was observed at control sample while coated samples had a higher L* value. It was higher at samples coated with 1% BSG, 1% CSG and mixture of BSG-CSG at concentration of 1%. The control sample had the highest a* value and coating with CSG and BSG decreased amount of a*. B* was significantly higher at control sample (p < 0.05) and sample that was coated with 1% BSG-CSG mixture had the lowest b* value. There was no significant difference between coated samples and control samples in sensorial properties (taste, odor, color, texture and total acceptance).
Conclusion: Frying is a cooking process to achieve desirable sensory attributes such as flavor, texture and appearance. One of the most important quality changes during the process is mass transfer, mainly represented by water loss and oil uptake, and heat transfer. High oil content greatly increase the risk of adverse health consequences such as obesity, high blood pressure and coronary disease Based on the results, the sample coated with 1% BSG with the lowest oil uptake and highest moisture content and overall acceptance was selected as the best sample. The control sample that was coated with water had a high oil uptake and hardness while moisture content and L* was low. The sensorial properties of all samples had no significant difference.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Frying
  • Basil seed gum
  • Cress seed gum
  • Carrot
تقوی ن، ضیائی فر ا، میرزایی ح، صادقی ع، قربانی م و صباغی ح، 1397. بررسی تأثیر پوشش­دهی بر جذب روغن طی فرآیند سرخ‏کردن عمیق شیرینی سنتی پیشمه، نشریه پژوهش­های علوم و صنایع غذایی ایران، جلد 14، شماره 4، 561-571.
دارایی گرمه خانی ا، میرزایی ح، مقصودلو ی و کاشانی نژاد م، 1388. تأثیر مواد هیدروکلوئیدی بر جذب روغن و خواص کیفی خلال نیمه سرخ‏شده سیب زمینی. مجله علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی. جلد شانزدهم، شماره سوم.
دهقان نصیری ف، محبی م، طباطبایی یزدی ف و حداد خداپرست م ح، 1391 . اثر آرد ذرت بر ویژگیهای کیفی ناگت میگوی سرخ‏شده به روش عمیق با استفاده از دو نوع فرایند آماده‏سازی. نشریه پژوهشهای علوم و صنایع غذایی ایران، جلد 8، شماره 4، 78-81..
زمانی قلعه شاهی ع، فرهوش ر و رضوی س م ع، 1394. ارزیابی اثر صمغ دانه ریحان بر میزان جذب روغن و خواص فیزیکی خلال‏های سیب زمینی طی سرخ‏کردن عمیق. نشریه پژوهشهای علوم و صنایع غذایی ایران.  جلد 11 ، شماره 4، ص. 318-309.
فرج زاده رحیمی، ا، حجت الاسلامی م و مولوی ه، 1391.  تولید همبرگر سرخ‏شده کم چرب با استفاده از پوشش‏های هیدروکلوئیدی. دوره 2، شماره 4.
میرعرب رضی، س. 1398. تاثیر پوشش های هیدروکلوئیدی صمغ دانه ریحان و  شاهی بر جذب روغن و خواص کیفی هویج سرخ شده، طرح پژوهشی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری.
یادگاری م، اسماعیل زاده کناری ر و هاشمی س ج، 1396. بررسی اثرات صمغ‏ها‏ی دانه شاهی، قدومه شیرازی و متیل سلولز و ترکیب آن‏ها بر جذب روغن و خصوصیات کیفی سیب زمینی سرخ‏شده طی فرایند سرخ‏شدن عمیق. علوم و صنایع غذایی، شماره 69، دوره 14، 1-9.
Akdeniz N, Sahin S and Sumnu G, 2006. Functionality of batters containing different gums for deep-fat frying of carrot slices. Journal of Food Engineering 75(4): 522-526.
Akdeniz N, Sahin S and Sumnu G. 2005. Effects of different batter formulations on the quality of deep-fat-fried carrot slices. European Food Research and Technology 221(1-2): 99-105.
Albert S and Mittal GS, 2002. Comparative evaluation of edible coatings to reduce fat uptake in a deep-fried cereal product. Food Research International 35: 445-458.
Aminlari M, Ramezani R and Khalili MH, 2005. Production of protein coated low-fat potato chips. Journal of FoodScience and Technology International 11: 177-181.
AOAC, 1984. Official methods of analysis (14th ed.), Association of Official Analytical chemists, Washington DC, 14:004.
AOAC, 2005. Official methods of analysis, 18 ed., Washington, DC:Association of official analytic chemists.
Bajaj I and Singhal R, 2007. Gellan gum for reducing oil uptake in sev, a legume based product during deep-fat frying. Food Chemistry 104: 1472–1477.
Bingol G, Zhang A, Pan, Z and McHugh T, 2012. Producing lower-calorie deep fat fried French fries using infrared dry-blanching as pretreatment. Food Chemistry 132: 686–692.
Bouchon P, Hollins P, Pearson M, Pyle DL and Tobin MJ, 2001. Oil distribution in fried potatoes monitored by infrared micro spectroscopy. Journal of Food Science 66:918-923.
Chaiwut G, Waranit P, Pawadee M, Nispa S, Asira F and Akamol K, 2013. Effects of cross-linked tapioca starches on batter viscosity and oil absorption in deep-fried breaded chicken strips, Food Engineering 114: 262-268.
Chen HH, Kang HY and Chen SD, 2008. The effects of ingredients and water content on the rheological properties of batters and physical properties of crusts in fried foods. Journal of Food Engineering 88: 45–54.
Gharanjig H, Gharanjig K, Hosseinnezhad M, and Jafari SM, 2020. Development and optimization of complex coacervates based on zedo gum, cress seed gum and gelatin. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules.
Karimi N and Kenari RE, 2016. Functionality of coatings with salep and basil seed gum for deep fried potato strips. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 93(2), pp.243-250.
Kim DN, Lim J, Bae IY, Lee HG and Lee S, 2011. Effect of hydrocolloid coatings on the heat transfer and oil uptake during frying of potato strips. Journal of Food Engineering 102(4): 317-320.
Dueik V, Moreno M and Bouchon P, 2012. Microstructural approach to understand oil absorption during vacuum and atmospheric frying. Journal of Food Engineering 111: 528-536.
Dueik V, Robert P and Bouchon, P. 2010. Vacuum frying reduces oil uptake and improves the quality parameters of carrot crisps. Food Chemistry 119(3): 1143-1149.
Fan L, Zhang M, Xiao G, Sun J and Tao G, 2005. The optimization of vacuum frying to dehydrate carrot chips. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 40: 911-919.
García MA, Ferrero C, Bértola N, Martino M and Zaritzky N, 2002. Edible coatings from cellulose derivatives to reduce oil uptake in fried products. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 3: 391–397.
Gibis M, Schuh V and Weiss J, 2015. Effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as fat replacers on the microstructure and sensory characteristics of fried beef patties. Journal of Food Hydrocolloids 45: 236-246.
Khazaei N, Esmaiili M and Emam-Djomeh Z, 2016. Effect of active edible coatings made by basil seed gum and thymol on oil uptake and oxidation in shrimp during deep-fat frying. Carbohydrate polymers, 137, pp.249-254.
Lauritzsen K, Akse L, Gundersen B and Olsen RL, 2004. Effects of calcium, magnesium and pH during salt curing of cod (Gadus morhua). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84: 683-692.
Lumanlan JC, Fernando WMADB and Jayasena V, 2019. Mechanisms of oil uptake during deep frying and applications of predrying and hydrocolloids in reducing fat content of chips. International Journal of Food Science & Technology.
Mellema M, 2003. Mechanism and reduction of fat uptake in deep-fat fried foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology 14: 364–373.
Pedreschi F and Moyano P, 2005. Oil uptake and texture development in fried potato slices. Journal of Food Engineering 70(4): 557-563
Primo-Martín C, Sanz T, Steringa DW, Salvador A, Fiszman SM and Van Vliet T, 2010. Performance of cellulose derivatives in deep-fried battered snacks: Oil barrier and crispy properties. Food Hydrocolloids 24(8):702-708.
Razi SM, Motamedzadegan A, Matia-Merino L, Shahidi SA and Rashidinejad A, 2019a. The effect of pH and high-pressure processing (HPP) on the rheological properties of egg white albumin and basil seed gum mixtures. Food hydrocolloids, 94:399-410.
Razi SM, Motamedzadegan A, Shahidi SA and Rashidinejad A, 2019b. Physical and Rheological Properties of Egg Albumin Foams Are Affected by Ionic Strength and Basil Seed Gum Supplementation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2019.
Razi SM, Motamedzadegan A, Shahidi SA and Rashidinejad A, 2018. Basil seed gum enhances the rheological and physical properties of egg albumin foams. Food Nutrition Journal: FDNJ-192. DOI, 10:2575-7091.
Singh S, Shivhare US, Ahmed J and Raghavan GSV, 1999. Osmotic concentration kinetics and quality of carrot preserve. Food Research International 32:509-514.
Singthong J and Thongkaew CH, 2009. Using hydrocolloids to decrease oil absorption in banana chips. LWT - Food Science and Technology 42: 1199–1203.
Sumonsiri, N., Imjaijit, S and Padboke, T, 2020. Effect of guar gum and glycerol on oil absorption and qualities of banana chips. International Food Research Journal, 27(3): 529-535.
Susanne A and Gauri SM, 2002. Comparative evaluation of edible coatings to reduce fat uptake in a deep-fried cereal product. Journal of Food Research International 35: 445-458.
Varela P and Fiszman SM, 2011. Hydrocolloids in fried foods. A review. Food Hydrocolloids 1-12
Ziaiifar AM, Achir N, Courtois F, Trezzani I and Trystram G, 2008. Review of mechanisms, conditions, and factors involved in the oil uptake phenomenon during the deep fat frying process. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 43(8), 1410-1423.