نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ورامین پیشوا
2 ، گروه صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد ورامین – پیشوا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ورامین، ایران
3 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،واحد ورامین پیشوا،گروه علوم وصنایع غذایی،ورامین، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: In recent years, adequate intake of vitamin D has become an important issue that has been the cause of the strong development of bone disease worldwide (Pearce & Cheetham, 2010; Clarke & Page, 2012). Bone softness is a progressive disease in childhood that results in bones softening and bending under body weight (Wharton & Bishop, 2003). Extensive studies have shown that high dietary calcium intake is associated with reduced risk of osteoporosis, hypertension, colon cancer, and renal stones (Singh & Muthukumarappan, 2008). The absorption of calcium in the blood takes the form of calcium ions from the intestinal wall. Increased calcium absorption is due to vitamin D, which is why calcium supplements usually contain vitamin D, so if you consume sources that contain these two substances, the calcium in them will be better absorbed. If there is a substance in the food called oxalate, its calcium absorption is reduced. The regulation of calcium levels in the body is caused by hormones secreted by the thyroid gland (Lau et al., 2000). Vitamin D3 is required to regulate the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the diet and placement of bone in it. Inadequate calcium intake can also lead to bone softness in children and bone pain, muscle weakness and osteoporosis in adults. The daily requirement for vitamin D3 per adult is 10 micrograms or up to 2000 units per day. This is even higher in childhood and aging (Braegger et al., 2013; Glerup, 2000). Enriching popular foods among children and adolescents, such as snacks and confectionary products, can be a good solution to this problem. Vitamins are one of the most important micronutrients that are vital to human health and are essential for survival in the body. Vitamins are organic compounds that are essential to the metabolism of nutrients, vital to the body, and to the growth and development of health (Dennehy and Tsouronis, 2010). Adding one or more micronutrients to the staple diet is said to be one of the most effective strategies to prevent micronutrient deficiency (Jafarpour and Mazandarani, 2013).
Material and methods: For pastel production, 6 g of gelatin was first dissolved in bloom 260 in distilled water (twice the weight of gelatin) using a magnetic stirrer at 60 ° C in 12 g of water. Simultaneously, sugar syrup (boiling liquid glucose (35 g), sugar (35 g) in 20 ml of water and bubbling to 77-78) was prepared and after lowering the temperature, the gelatin solution was added and the resulting mixture was added to the water bath. Heat (70 °C) (Abbasi et al., 2011) and to reach pH 3± 0.25, citric acid (1.5 g), cherry color (0.03 g) and cherry essential oil (07 (0) g) was added with vitamin D3 (100, IU 100, 70, 40 g) and calcium (1000, 750, 500 g, 100 g / 100 g) and mixed gently to prevent air bubbles from entering . Calcium-free and vitamin D3 samples were used as controls. It should be noted that the calcium consumed was calcium carbonate and the vitamin D3 used in this study was powdered and water soluble. After mixing, the gelatin-sugar solution was poured into the mold with 40 × 5 3 3 mm dimensions and placed in the oven at 37 ° C for 24 hours at room temperature for 24 hours and then cooled to room temperature. The mold came out (Demars & Ziegler, 2001). Chemical tests (amount of brix, acidity and ash) and tissue properties (hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness) were evaluated on the first day, and tests of calcium and vitamin D3 stability and sensory properties (color, taste and odor, texture and acceptance overall) were evaluated at the first day of production, 30 and 60 days. In order to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the data with 10 treatments and 3 replications, one-way ANOVA was used and for comparing the mean of data, Duncan's test was used at 95% confidence level and the two-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the interaction of factors It turned out Minitab 16 software was used to analyze the statistical data and Excel software was used for drawing graphs.
Results and discussion: The results showed that the type of treatment (different percentages of calcium and vitamin D3) had a significant effect on chemical properties (brix, acidity and ash content), tissue properties (hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness), calcium and vitamin D3 stability and sensory properties Color, taste and smell, texture and overall acceptance) was positive (p<0.05) while maintenance time had no significant effect (p>0.05). Also, there was a significant difference between control treatment and other treatments (p<0.05). Increasing the amount of calcium, the amount of brix, ash, acidity, tissue properties (hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness), calcium stability and sensory properties of the posterior tissue increased (p<0.05), while there was a significant difference between treatments (p<0.05). The amount of bricks in the present study was higher than the minimum standard of 2682 (80%) in all treatments. The amount of ash obtained in all treatments was lower than the maximum value of 2682 (0.5%) in all treatments. It should be noted that the amount of acidity in the present study was lower than the maximum value of 2682 (2.5%) in all treatments. As the amount of calcium increased due to the increase in calcium, tissue density increased and eventually resulted in increased chewing ability of pastel (Rezaee et al., 2011). There was no significant difference in vitamin D3 between treatments (p>0.05). With the increase in calcium content, the sensory properties of color decreased and there was a significant difference between treatments, while there was no significant difference between the samples with increasing vitamin D3 levels. With the increase of vitamin D3, vitamin D3 increased in Gummy candy, while there was no significant difference between treatments with increasing calcium. By increasing the amount of calcium and vitamin D3, the taste and odor scores and overall acceptance decreased. Treatments 10 (containing 100 mg/100 mg of calcium and 100IU/100mg of vitamin D3) were identified as superior treatments for acidity, ash, brix, vitamin D3 and calcium stability and sensory evaluation (overall acceptance).
Conclusion: According to the results of this study calcium in 1000 mg / 100g and vitamin D in 100 mg IU / 100mg can be used in pastill formulation without adverse effect on sensory properties (general acceptance).