تاثیر سرعت هوای داغ بر سینتیک خشک شدن و ویژگی‌‌های فیزیکی شیمیایی پودر میوه تمشک تولید ‌شده به روش فوم‌مت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه تبریز

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

3 دانشگاه تبریز

10.22034/fr.2021.44011.1785

چکیده

با توجه به جایگاه تغذیه‌ای و اثرات سلامتی بخش تمشک به عنوان میوه‌ای سرشار از ترکیبات مغذی، پودر حاصل از آن نیز می‌تواند ضمن دارا بودن این ترکیبات، به افزایش تنوع و مصرف محصولات تمشک منجر شود. در مطالعۀ حاضر سینتیک خشک شدن تمشک به روش فوم‌مت و خواص فیزیکی شیمیایی پودر حاصل، تحت تاثیر سرعت هوا مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای ‌‌تهیۀ فوم از اوالبومین و متیل‌سلولز هر کدام با غلظت 5/0% به ترتیب به عنوان عامل فوم‌ساز و عامل پایدار‌کنندۀ فوم استفاده شد. فوم تهیه شده در ضخامت 7 میلی‌متر بر روی پلیت آلومینیومی گسترده شده و در یک خشک‌کن کابینتی با هوای داغ در دمای 70 درجۀ سلسیوس و سرعت‌‌های 2 تا 4 ‌‌متر‌بر‌ثانیه خشک گردید. نتایج نشان داد که ضریب انتشار مؤثر رطوبت در بازه 8- 10×391/1 تا 8- 10×723/1 متر مربع برثانیه بود و افزایش سرعت هوای خشک کردن از 2 تا 3 متربرثانیه و 3 تا 4 ‌‌متر بر‌ثانیه، تأثیر معنی‌داری بر آن داشت (05/0p <). با این حال، افزایش سرعت هوای خشک کردن بر محتوای رطوبت، نسبت رطوبت و نرخ خشک شدن محصول در حین خشک شدن، تأثیر معنی‌داری نداشت (05/0p>). تغییرات شاخص کار و نسبت هوسنر در سرعت‌های مختلف خشک کردن از لحاظ آماری معنی‌دار بود (05/0p <) و افزایش سرعت هوا از 2 تا 3 ‌‌متر‌بر‌ثانیه، سبب کاهش مقادیر آن‌‌ها گردید که نشانگر بهبود جریان پذیری پودر در سرعت هوای 3 متربرثانیه بود. همچنین، مقادیر میانگین محتوای رطوبت پودر، شاخص حلالیت در آب، شاخص جذب آب، شاخص کروما و میزان روشنایی پودر تمشک، با افزایش سرعت هوای خشک کردن به طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت (05/0p <). در صورتیکه، دانسیتۀ توده‌ای، ضربه‌ای و ذره‌ای و اختلاف رنگ کلی پودر، با افزایش سرعت هوای خشک کردن کاهش یافت (05/0p>). پودر تمشک تولید شده به روش فوم‌مت، به دلیل دارا بودن محتوای آنتوسیانین بالا، می‌تواند به عنوان افزودنی طبیعی در محصولات غذایی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of hot air velocity on drying kinetics and physicochemical properties of raspberry fruit powder produced by foam mat method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Dadashi 1
  • Mahsa Ershadfarkar 2
  • Jalal Dehghannya 3
  • Maryam Khakbaz Heshmati 2
1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
3 University of Tabriz
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Due to the nutritional status and health effects of raspberry as a fruit rich in nutrients such as anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, the resulting powder can while have these compounds, increasing the variety and consumption of raspberry products (Si et al., 2016). However, because of its high moisture content and vulnerable texture, raspberry fruit corrupts very quickly and is difficult to keep fresh, even in cold storage conditions. Therefore, maintaining the quality of raspberry fruit after harvest and also increasing its storage time is one of the goals of raspberry growers around the world (Palonen and Weber, 2019). The drying process of fruits and vegetables prevents chemical and biochemical spoilage of the products and increases their shelf life by reducing the moisture content. However, some undesirable physical and chemical changes such as loss of color, texture and nutritional value may also occur during drying, which reduce consumer acceptance (Dehghannya et al., 2017; Kayran and Doymaz, 2017). Foam mat drying is an alternative method of drum dryer, spray dryer and freezer dryer for the production of food powder. Food products become a stable foam by adding foaming agents and stirring in the presence or absence of foam stabilizers and are dried using different heat streams. Therefore, with the proper selection of foaming agents and drying conditions, a high quality powder can be obtained (Qadri et al., 2010; Javed et al., 2018). Despite the impact of air velocity on drying kinetics and other process parameters and consequently on the qualitative and functional characteristics of the dried product, few studies have been done on the effect of air velocity on foam mat drying of agricultural and food products. Therefore, according to the potentials of raspberry fruit and foam mat drying method, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of drying air velocity (2 to 4 m/s) on the effective moisture diffusion coefficient, drying kinetics and also on the physicochemical properties of raspberry powder produced by the foam mat drying method.
Material and methods: Black raspberry fruit after being prepared from the local market in the north of the Iran (Gilan province) was stored at a temperature of 4C. The raspberry fruit was first completely crushed by a food processor and passed through mesh number 30. Ovalbumin and methylcellulose with a concentration of 0.5% were used as foaming agent and foam stabilizing agent, respectively and added to the raspberry pulp. The resulting mixture was mixed with an electric stirrer at maximum speed for 10 minutes and the resulting foam was spread in a thickness of 7 mm on an aluminum plate. Drying was performed with a convective hot air dryer at a temperature of 70C and an air velocity of 2 to 4 m/s. Drying kinetics and effective moisture diffusion coefficient, as well as physicochemical properties of raspberry powder such as bulk and tap density, powder flowability, absolute density, water solubility index (WSI) and water absorption index (WAI), powder mass porosity, moisture content and color were evaluated according to the methods described by Dehghannya et al (Dehghannya et al., 2018, 2019).
Results and discussion: In the present study, the drying kinetics of raspberry by the foam mat drying method and the physicochemical properties of the resulting powder under the influence of air velocity were investigated. The results showed that the effective moisture diffusion coefficient (Deff) was in the range of 1.391  10-8 to 1.723  10-8 m2/s and the increase of drying air velocity from 2 to 3 m/s and 3 to 4 m/s had a significant effect on it (p < 0.05). However, increasing the drying air velocity had no significant effect (p> 0.05) on moisture content, moisture ratio and drying rate of the product during drying. Changes in Carr index and Hausner ratio at different drying velocities were statistically significant (p <0.05) and increasing the air velocity from 2 to 3 m/s reduced their values, which indicated the improvement of the powder flowability at air velocity of 3 m/s. Furthermore, the mean values of MC, WSI, WAI, Chroma index and brightness of raspberry powder significantly increased with increasing drying air velocity (p <0.05). However, the bulk and tap density and absolute density and the overall color difference of raspberry powder decreased with increasing drying air velocity (p> 0.05).
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the hot air velocity used in the drying process can be effective on the effective moisture diffusion coefficient and thus on the quality characteristics of the produced powder. So that, its effect on effective moisture diffusion coefficient, bulk and tap density, flowability, absolute density, WSI, WAI, moisture content and brightness of powder were significant. It should be noted, that the effect of air velocity in different values and in accordance with other process conditions, on different parameters is variable. Raspberry powder produced by foam mat drying method, due to its high anthocyanin content, can be used as a natural additive in dairy products, desserts, jams, jellies and other food products and the results of this study can increase the quality of the powder and improve its nutritional and functional properties by optimizing the drying process.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Raspberry powder
  • Foam mat drying
  • Functional properties
  • Drying kinetics
  • Effective moisture diffusion coefficient
Abbasi E, Azizpour M,2016. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of foam mat dried sour cherry powder. LWT-Food Science and Technology 68:105-110.
Ademiluyi F, Abowei M,2013. Theoretical model for predicting moisture ratio during drying of spherical particles in a rotary dryer. Modelling and Simulation in Engineering 2013.
Aghilinategh N, Rafiee S, Gholikhani A, Hosseinpur S, Omid M, Mohtasebi SS and Maleki N,2015. A comparative study of dried apple using hot air, intermittent and continuous microwave: evaluation of kinetic parameters and physicochemical quality attributes. Food science & nutrition 3:519-526.
Aktas RN and Tontul I,2021. Usability of soapwort and horse chestnut saponin extracts as foaming agents in foam mat drying of pomegranate juice. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 101:786-793.
Araya-Farias M and Ratti C, 2008. Dehydration of foods: general concepts, p 19-54, Advances in food dehydration. CRC Press.
Asokapandian S, Venkatachalam S, Swamy GJ and Kuppusamy K,2016. Optimization of foaming properties and foam mat drying of muskmelon using soy protein. Journal of food process engineering 39:692-701.
Aziz M, Yusof Y, Blanchard C, Saifullah M, Farahnaky A and Scheiling G,2018. Material properties and tableting of fruit powders. Food Engineering Reviews 10:66-80.
Blasco M, García-Pérez J, Bon J, Carreres J and Mulet A,2006. Effect of blanching and air flow rate on turmeric drying. Food Science and Technology International 12:315-323.
Caparino O, Tang J, Nindo C, Sablani S, Powers J and Fellman J,2012. Effect of drying methods on the physical properties and microstructures of mango (Philippine ‘Carabao’var.) powder. Journal of food engineering 111:135-148.
Chandramohan V, 2018. Influence of Air Flow Velocity and Temperature on Drying Parameters: An Experimental Analysis with Drying Correlation, in International Conference of Mechanical, Materials and Renewable Energy IOP Conf Series, Materials Science and Engineering p 012197.
Chaux-Gutiérrez AM, Pérez-Monterroza EJ, Telis VRN and Mauro MA,2017. The Physical and Morphological Characteristics of Mango Powder (Mangifera indica L. cv Tommy Atkins) Produced by Foam Mat Drying. Food biophysics 12:69-77.
Dehghannya J, Gorbani R and Ghanbarzadeh B,2016. Shrinkage of mirabelle plum during hot air drying as influenced by ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration. International journal of food properties 19:1093-1103.
Dehghannya J, Gorbani R and Ghanbarzadeh B,2017. Influence of combined pretreatments on color parameters during convective drying of Mirabelle plum (Prunus domestica subsp. syriaca). Heat and Mass Transfer 53:2425-2433.
Dehghannya J, Hosseinlar S-H and Heshmati MK,2018. Multi-stage continuous and intermittent microwave drying of quince fruit coupled with osmotic dehydration and low temperature hot air drying. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 45:132-151.
Dehghannya J, Pourahmad M, Ghanbarzadeh B and Ghaffari H,2019. Heat and mass transfer enhancement during foam-mat drying process of lime juice: Impact of convective hot air temperature. International Journal of Thermal Sciences 135:30-43.
Deng LZ, Mujumdar AS, Zhang Q, Yang XH, Wang J, Zheng ZA, Gao ZJ and Xiao HW,2019. Chemical and physical pretreatments of fruits and vegetables: Effects on drying characteristics and quality attributes–a comprehensive review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 59:1408-1432.
Dinani ST and Havet M,2015. Effect of voltage and air flow velocity of combined convective-electrohydrodynamic drying system on the physical properties of mushroom slices. Industrial Crops and Products 70:417-426.
Djaeni M, Prasetyaningrum A, Sasongko S, Widayat W and Hii C,2015. Application of foam-mat drying with egg white for carrageenan: drying rate and product quality aspects. Journal of food science and technology 52:1170-1175.
Domian E and Poszytek K,2005. Wheat flour flow ability as affected by water activity, storage time and consolidation. International agrophysics 19.
Ekezie FGC, Sun DW, Han Z and Cheng JH,2017. Microwave-assisted food processing technologies for enhancing product quality and process efficiency: A review of recent developments. Trends in Food Science & Technology 67:58-69.
Franco TS, Perussello CA, Ellendersen LdSN and Masson ML,2015. Foam mat drying of yacon juice: Experimental analysis and computer simulation. Journal of Food Engineering 158:48-57.
Franco TS, Perussello CA, Ellendersen LN and Masson ML,2016. Effects of foam mat drying on physicochemical and microstructural properties of yacon juice powder. LWT-Food Science and Technology 66:503-513.
Goula AM and Adamopoulos KG,2005. Spray drying of tomato pulp in dehumidified air: II. The effect on powder properties. Journal of food engineering 66:35-42.
Jafari SM, Ghalenoei MG and Dehnad D,2017. Influence of spray drying on water solubility index, apparent density, and anthocyanin content of pomegranate juice powder. Powder technology 311:59-65.
Jakubczyka E, Gondeka E and Tamborb K, 2011. Characteristics of selected functional properties of apple powders obtained by the foam-mat drying method. ICEF 11 International Congress on Engineering and Food, International Association of Engineering and Food Athens, Greece.
Ju HY, Law CL, Fang XM, Xiao HW, Liu YH and Gao ZJ,2016. Drying kinetics and evolution of the sample's core temperature and moisture distribution of yam slices (Dioscorea alata L.) during convective hot-air drying. Drying Technology 34:1297-1306.
Kayran S and Doymaz İ,2017. Infrared drying and effective moisture diffusivity of apricot halves: Influence of pretreatment and infrared power. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 4: e12827.
Khazaei J, Khosro-Beygi Z, Arab-Hosseini A and Sivandi-Nasab S, 2008. Drying kinetics of Zataria multiflora (Avishan) leaves-intelligent and superposition modelling techniques, in Agricultural and biosystems engineering for a sustainable world International Conference on Agricultural Engineering, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, 23-25 June, 2008, European Society of Agricultural Engineers (AgEng).
Kumar N, Sarkar B and Sharma H,2011. Effect of air velocity on kinetics of thin layer carrot pomace drying. Food science and technology international 17:459-469.
Lee KC, Yoon YS, Li FZ and Eun JB,2017. Effects of inlet air temperature and concentration of carrier agents on physicochemical properties, sensory evaluation of spray-dried mandarin (Citrus unshiu) beverage powder. Applied Biological Chemistry 60:33-40.
Mitra J, Shrivastava S and Rao PS,2015. Characterization of vacuum dried onion slices. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 9:1-10.
Morimoto C, Satoh Y, Hara M, Inoue S, Tsujita T and Okuda H,2005. Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone. Life sciences 77:194-204.
Niamnuy C and Devahastin S,2005. Drying kinetics and quality of coconut dried in a fluidized bed dryer. Journal of food engineering 66:267-271.
Onwude DI, Hashim N and Chen G,2016. Recent advances of novel thermal combined hot air drying of agricultural crops. Trends in Food Science & Technology 57:132-145.
Palonen P and Weber C,2019. Fruit color stability, anthocyanin content, and shelf life were not correlated with ethylene production rate in five primocane raspberry genotypes. Scientia Horticulturae 247:9-16.
Qadri OS, Srivastava AK and Yousuf B,2020. Trends in foam mat drying of foods: Special emphasis on hybrid foam mat drying technology. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 60:1667-1676.
Rao AV and Snyder DM,2010. Raspberries and human health: a review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58:3871-3883.
Ratti C,2001. Hot air and freeze-drying of high-value foods: a review. Journal of food engineering 49:311-319.
Ratti C and Kudra T,2006. Drying of foamed biological materials: opportunities and challenges. Drying Technology 24:1101-1108.
Russo P, Adiletta G and Di Matteo M,2013. The influence of drying air temperature on the physical properties of dried and rehydrated eggplant. Food and Bioproducts Processing 91:249-256.
Salahi MR, Mohebbi M and Taghizadeh M,2015. Foam‐Mat Drying of Cantaloupe (C ucumis melo): Optimization of Foaming Parameters and Investigating Drying Characteristics. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 39:1798-1808.
Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, Lee R, Sand D, Scheuller HS and Heber D,2006. Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 54:9329-9339.
Seerangurayar T, Manickavasagan A, Al-Ismaili AM and Al-Mulla YA,2017. Effect of carrier agents on flowability and microstructural properties of foam-mat freeze dried date powder. Journal of Food Engineering 215:33-43.
Shaari NA, Sulaiman R, Rahman RA and Bakar J,2018. Production of pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) powder using foam mat drying: Effect of whipping time and egg albumen concentration. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 42: e13467.
Sharma G, Verma R and Pathare P,2005. Mathematical modeling of infrared radiation thin layer drying of onion slices. Journal of food engineering 71:282-286.
Si X, Chen Q, Bi J, Yi J, Zhou L and Wu X,2016. Infrared radiation and microwave vacuum combined drying kinetics and quality of raspberry. Journal of Food Process Engineering 39:377-390.
Tzempelikos DA, Vouros AP, Bardakas AV, Filios AE and Margaris DP,2014. Case studies on the effect of the air drying conditions on the convective drying of quinces. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 3:79-85.
Velić D, Planinić M, Tomas S and Bilić M,2004. Influence of airflow velocity on kinetics of convection apple drying. Journal of Food Engineering 64:97-102.