نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشگاه آزاد شهر قدس
2 گروه علوم وصنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد شهر قدس، تهران، ایران
3 گروه علوم وصنایع غذایی،واحد شهر قدس،دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،تهران،ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Cereals are one of the first known human foods that have long played an important role in the economics and nutrition of the world's people, especially in developing countries, since ancient times. One of the sweetest donut wheat products is the largest breakfast breakfast industry in the United States And after potato crops, it is the most consumed among all kinds of snacks (Zolfaghari 2010). The use of appropriate antioxidants is effective in delaying oxidation and extending the shelf life of food products. Consumers prefer natural antioxidants to their synthetic form. Among oilseeds, purslane is rich in omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linoic acid) than other grains. Cinnamon is also one of the most important spice plants that has healing properties and has antimicrobial and nutritional properties in the food industry. It is used as an antioxidant and has an excellent flavor quality. Donut is a flour-based pastry made from frying fresh or fermented dough in oil and used as a pastry, dessert or dessert (National Iranian Standards Organization, National Standard No. 16980). In another study of the conquest of Kazemi et al., (2012), the effects of adding Purslane and Flaxseed Powdered Seeds and their mixtures alone in 5, 10, 15, 20% to wheat flour on the sensory and chemical properties of bread flour samples And fortified bread such as oil percentage, linolenic acid, tocopherols and peroxide number were studied. The results showed that with increasing grain powder percentage, linolenic acid content of flour and bread samples increased to 20% in flour and bread samples. Adding grain powder caused a significant change in the peroxide values of flour and bread samples. The highest amount of β + tocopherol was obtained in control and 20% purslane oil. In terms of sensory characteristics, the highest score of the final score was for the 10% of the purslane and the 5% of the flax.
Material and methods: The ingredients used along with purslane seed powder and cinnamon essential oil include wheat flour, sugar, oil, egg, water, salt, purslane, cinnamon, enhancer, yeast, which were all purchased from Karaj market. The chemicals and solvents of the German brand Merck were obtained from the Tehran market. In order to prepare donuts, wheat flour plus the purslane seed powder purchased from the Karaji perfumes were thoroughly blended according to the treatments. Then the cinnamon essential oils (purchased from Tabriz, made by Spanish Airlines) were completely blended according to the treatments (0, 15, 20, 25%) by weight. Then, cinnamon essential oil was added to flour and potato according to treatments (0, 500, 600 ppm). The frying temperature was set to 180 ° C and the samples were gently placed in the fryer chamber. The donuts were cooled to room temperature for 30 minutes after frying.
Results and discussion: According to the results, moisture content in the prepared treatments was reduced by adding cinnamon essential oil and flour. The reason for this increase is the hydrophilic nature of the pectin gum compounds found in the purslane seed powder. It also has a high percentage of fiber and a water retention capacity by the purslane that drains water. Protein content of the treatments increased with increasing amount of purslane flour and cinnamon essential oil. Since purslane flour and cinnamon essential oil are rich in protein content, adding it to donut flour increases the protein content of donut flour. The results showed that the percentage of fat increased with the addition of purslane flour and cinnamon essential oil. This is because the purslane grain is rich in linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid, and the increase in fat in treatments containing 25% of purslane is due to the high amount of the same saturated fatty acids. The results show that increasing the purslane and cinnamon increased the fiber content in the treatments. All treatments showed an increase in the stability of the dough with the addition of purslane flour and cinnamon essential oil. This means that the valuable components of the purslane seed provide strong mobile connections with flour. The results showed that in all treatments due to addition of purslane flour, a decrease in the degree of loosening was observed. Addition of purslane flour showed an increase in pulp expansion time and valerimetric value. However, the addition of cinnamon essential oil at no level had any effect on these two indices. The reason for this increase is the tolerance of mixing of pulp with pulp, the concentration of gluten protein with fiber, as well as the reaction between fiber and gluten, which in turn affects the mixing properties. Increasing in the amount of Purslane seed oil and cinnamon essential oil in the treatments decreased the brightness index (index L) of the donuts and the red-green index (index a) significantly increased as well as the yellow-blue index (index b) The increase in the use of purslane flour decreased and the amount of cinnamon essential oil increased significantly. This is due to the addition of purslane seed powder, which reduces the brightness of the donut. By adding powdered purslane seed, the texture of the donuts becomes denser. The densest tissues in the donuts were obtained from 25% purslane flour treatment and 600 ppm essential oil both on the first day after baking and on the third day. The results showed that the amount of donut fiber was measured at three time points of 5, 15 and 30 days after production. The results of mean comparisons showed that the addition of purslane flour and cinnamon essential oil was added to the amount of donut fiber. The results showed that by adding flour and cinnamon powder, the results showed a decrease in all traits compared to the control treatment. The lowest score in terms of aroma, taste, porosity and softness was related to treatment of 25 in purslane flour and 600 ppm of cinnamon powder and the highest score was in non-consumption.
Conclusion: The results of these studies showed that purslane seed is a rich source of high nutritional value that can be used in donut production. Also, in the study of the use of purslane seed powder and cinnamon essence in donut formulation, the amount of protein, fat, fiber, pulp stability and total fiber content in donuts were increased compared to the control sample. Also, according to the results of the evaluation of the referees, samples containing 15% purslane powder and 600 ppm cinnamon essence were more acceptable.
Keywords: Donuts, Purslane, Cinnamon essential oil, Antioxidant property